Duopoly 1 lesson 13 duopoly c 2010, 2011 roberto. While the first mover in a Stackelberg duopoly earns more than a Cournot duopolist, this is not necessarily true for m > 2. presentations for free. The incumbent's best response function has a break in it at K1. Oecd glossary of statistical terms cournot (nash) equilibrium. Lecture 17, Chapter 11. Stackelberg model of noncooperative oligopoly 6.monopolistic rivalry 7.Bertrand model of noncooperative oligopoly Slide 3 Market structures markets vary as per number of firms in market simplicity of passage and leave capacity of firms to separate their items ???????? در بازار رقابت انحصاری کالای فروشندگان بیشمار به جای اینکه با هم مشابه باشند از نظر کیفیت یا بسته بندی با یکدیگر متفاوت است؛ لذا کالاها کاملاً جانشین هم نیستند. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. In the Stackelberg model, the leader decides how much output to produce with other firms basing their decision on what the leader chooses. Chapter 13. Introduction to game theory: games with continuous strategy sets. 13. ADVERTISEMENTS: This model was developed by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg and is an extension of Cournot’s model. Cournot equilibrium is an example of ... - Suppose that American Airlines comprises the entire market for commercial air travel. Week 4, 5. Capacity competition (Stackelberg-Spence-Dixit-Model). The reason there are more than one model of oligopoly is that the interaction between firms is very complex. Price Determination Under Oligopoly ?? Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. It is assumed, by von Stackelberg, that one duopolist is sufficiently sophisticated to recognise that his competitor acts on the Cournot assumption. There are many different models for oligopoly behaviour such as the Cournot Solution, the Sweezy Kinked Demand Curve Solution, the Stackelberg Model and the Bertrand Model. You can change your ad preferences anytime. (Duopoly) Augie Cournot. (1992). Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. It's FREE! Stackelberg Model Graphically(cont): q2 q’ q’’qM q1 Isoprofit = πM =1 single point π’< πM=(1/b)((a-c)/2)^2 Given q2, firm 1 chooses its best response i.e. Lesson 13. Oligopoly theories cournot. - Industrial Organization or Imperfect Competition Entry deterrence I Univ. • Compared to perfect competition – Firms face downward sloping demand and thus can choose their price. The model also implies that as N becomes larger, the price cost margins decrease This also seems reasonable intuitively- as there is more competition, –rms have less market power If we send N ! – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 437cb9-ZDk4N This section develops a model of price leadership in n-firm oligopoly based on firms’ differences in the loyalty of their customers, extending the duopoly analysis by Denekere et al . 斯塔克尔伯格模型或称斯塔克尔伯格竞争 (Stackelberg Leadership Model, Stackelberg Competition)由德国经济学家斯塔克尔伯格（H. - Consider a cartel in which each firm has identical and constant marginal costs. ??? Oecd glossary of statistical terms cournot (nash) equilibrium. Stackelberg equilibrium is attained if and only if firm 1 desires to be a leader and firm 2 a follower. - Economics of Innovation Patent Races: Dasgupta- Stiglitz Model Manuel Trajtenberg 2005 Patent Races Dasgupta Stiglitz (DS) 1 R&D and time to discovery DS 2 ... - Which model (Cournot or Stackelberg) is more appropriate? The Cournot Model Reaction Functions II. Hank Stackelberg. Both rms have the same unit production cost c = 30. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. – A duopoly is an oligopoly with only two firms. - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. While the Cournot model is one of simultaneous quantity setting, the Stackelberg model a quantity leadership model. ??? Cournot model ... - Primary objective of predatory conduct is to influence the behavior of rivals. * Types of Oligopoly Cournot Oligopoly Stackelberg Oligopoly Bertrand Oligopoly * Cournot Oligopoly Few firms in market serving many customers. In the real world of oligopoly there are certain difficulties in reaching this solution. It assumes that firms recognize interdependence and then act in a manner that monopoly solution is reached. - Models of Oligopoly. Please.consider a channel donation: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_donations&business=T2MPM6MSQ3UT8¤cy_code=USD&source=urlThis video … Retailer i s ... TRUST, FEAR, RECIPROCITY, AND ALTRUISM: Theory and Experiment. Augustin Cournot’s Model Oligopoly was made by the French economist Augustin Cournot in 1839. is model rests upon the following main assumptions: 1. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. As a price taker, a firm will produce where price equals long-run marginal costs. - Universit Libre de Bruxelles. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. they have. Stackelberg Model" is the property of its rightful owner. Achieving Network Optima Using Stackelberg Routing Strategies, - Achieving Network Optima Using Stackelberg Routing Strategies Yannis A. Korilis, Member, IEEE Aurel A. Lazar, Fellow, IEEE & Ariel Orda, Member IEEE. Duopoly 1 lesson 13 duopoly c 2010, 2011 roberto. 4 Oligopoly models • There are three dominant oligopoly models: – The relevant variable of choice for firms is how much to produce and sell, then the market adjusts the price, e.g. ... Cournot Model of Oligopoly in Hindi - … Chapter 1 Chapter 12 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly Monopolistic Competition Characteristics 1) ... - ... (Bertrand) When goods are not homogenous - Monopolistic competition Cournot Model - Assumptions Homogenous good 2 firms (duopoly) ... - Title: Konu : TEDAR K Z NC R Y NET M NDE RET M/DA ITIM KAYNAKLARI TASARIMI VE MODEL YAKLA IMLARI Author: OZCEYLAN Last modified by, Economics 202: Intermediate Microeconomic Theory. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "3.3. Models of Oligopoly • An oligopolyis a market with only a few important sellers. CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint. Appraisal of the Model: Chamberlin’s model is certainly more realistic than earlier models. Monopolistic Competition and Basic Oligopoly Models Monopolistic Competition (Chamberlin Model) … Cournot duopoly | policonomics. Oligopoly. The Stackelberg equilibrium price is lower, so output and total surplus are higher; total profits are lower. Comparison with Cournot Model: In Fig. - Collusive oligopoly Model Temptation to Collude When a small number of firms share a market, they can increase their profit by forming a cartel and acting like a ... Economics of Innovation Patent Races: Dasgupta- Stiglitz Model Manuel Trajtenberg 2005. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. ... - Oligopoly. Lesson 13. Generate new vector ... Bilevel Programming and Price Setting Problems. of spin. - The Dixit model. - Centralized Decision Decentralized Decision Can order-quantity discount scheme coordinate the supply chain (the distribution system)? 14.5 Stackelberg Oligopoly Model • General linear inverse demand function: p = a – bQ • Two firms have identical marginal costs, m • Firm 1 (American Airlines) is the Stackelberg leader and chooses output first • Firm 2 (United Airlines) is the follower and chooses output using best-response function Lesson 13. Duopoly wikipedia. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. ?? 2. – The market contains sufficiently few firms that each Industrial Organization- Matilde Machado Stackelberg Model 15 3.3. Cheap talk and cooperation in Stackelberg games, - Title: Slide 1 Author: ileppane Last modified by: ileppane Created Date: 8/16/2006 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles. ∞, we get that prices converge to marginal cost That is, Cournot converges to perfect competition Patrick Bajari Econ 4631 Oligopoly Models 26 / 55 Stackelberg Model of Duopoly Stackelberg Duopoly Suppose that two rms (Firm 1 and Firm 2) face an industry demand P = 150 Q where Q = q 1 + q 2 is the total industry output. Von Stackelberg）在上世纪30年代提出。 We compare an m-firm Cournot model with a hierarchical Stackelberg model where m Firms choose outputs sequentially. That's all free as well! Stackelberg duopoly, also called Stackelberg competition, is a model of imperfect competition based on a non-cooperative game. Cournot's model of oligopoly. Economics in Many Lessons 239,195 views. Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) proposed for better utilization. This equilibrium will resemble the perfectly competitive solution, even with few firms. Rival firms then use […] Select initial configuration. 12. The principal diﬁerence between the Cournot model and the Stack-elberg model is that instead of moving simultaneously (as in the Cournot model) the ﬂrms now move sequentially. Oligopoly Economics PPT - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. A Model Of Oligopoly Pricing In Which Each Firm Acts As PPT Presentation Summary : A model of oligopoly pricing in which each firm acts as a price taker even though there may be few firms is a quasi-competitive model. Cournot's model of oligopoly. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. 4 types of duopoly models (with diagram). ... American Airlines. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Continue our previous example ... - WE can use firm 2 s reaction curve as Q2 First Mover Advantage The Stackelberg Model Using Firm 2 s Reaction Curve for Q2: First Mover Advantage ... A Revenue Enhancing Stackelberg Game for Owners in Opportunistic Spectrum Access. How to Solve A Stackelberg Oligopoly Problem - Duration: 5:08. If the cartel maximizes total industry profits, what does this imply about the ... Limit%20Pricing%20and%20Entry%20Deterrence. Cournot model | price-output determination under oligopoly. Non- Collusive Oligopoly Models 1) Augustin Cournot’s Model 2) Bertrand’s Model 3) Edgeworth’s Model 4) Stackelberg,s Model 11. Cartel Model Cartel Model Formal Model of Price Leadership Model Quasi-Competitive Model A model of oligopoly pricing in which each firm acts as a price taker even though there may be few firms is a quasi-competitive model. Oligopoly. Assumptions I. There are Two firms in the market, A and B 2. Oligopoly • A monopoly is an industry consisting a single firm. Oligopoly (Chapter 14): Homogeneous oligopoly (p415-424) Cartel model. Oligopoly theories cournot. This recognition allows the sophisticated duopolist to determine the reaction curve of his rival […] They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Opponents of OSA: ... 14'4 Consider the model of Bertrand competition with differentiated products from the text' Let the. Duopoly 1 lesson 13 duopoly c 2010, 2011 roberto. Stackelberg duopoly, also called Stackelberg competition, is a model of imperfect competition based on a non-cooperative game. Innovation takes time. And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. Industrial Organization or Imperfect Competition Entry deterrence I. ... - Non-cooperative Oligopolies small number of firms acting independently, but aware of each other s actions. Pti l lParticularly, each fi ’firm’s own price or output decisions affect its competitors’ profits. ?, ??????? Assume that rst Firm 1 moves and chooses q 1:In the second stage, after observing q 1;Firm 2 moves and chooses q 2: The Cournot model focuses on the behaviour of quantities, prices and profits within a duopoly (if two firms are selling products in the same market). PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Official licensing procedures Strategic effects of ... | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Inventory Management (Deterministic Model) Coordination Mechanisms for a Distribution System with One Supplier and Multiple Retailers. Stackelberg duopoly | policonomics. • An oligopoly is an industry consisting of a few firms. Another common form of leadership is for the leading firm to set price. ????? Prof. dr. Maarten Janssen University of Vienna Summer semester 2012 Week 6 (April 26) * ... - Ising model is used to measure physical properties of an n-dimensional lattice ' ... Ising Model Flow Chart. March 2004. Same assumptions as the Cournot Model except that, In the first period the leader chooses its, In the second period, the follower chooses its, Is there any advantage in being the first to, How does the Stackelberg equilibrium compare with, In sequential games we first solve the problem in, 2nd period (firm 2 chooses q2 given what firm 1, In the 1st period (firm 1 chooses q1 knowing that, Graphically The isoprofit curves for firm 1 are, The reaction function intercepts the isoprofit, Graphically(cont) the optimum of the leader, Differences between Cournot and Stackelberg, In Cournot, firm 1 chooses its quantity given the, In Stackelberg, firm 1 chooses its quantity given, Note the assumption that the leader cannot, Is it plausible to think that q1 cannot be, Note When firms are symmetric, i.e. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. (i) The Kinked Demand Curve Model: The Kinked demand curve model was developed by Paul Sweezy (1939). • A duopoly is an industry consisting of two firms. Week 6. The Dixit model 3. 24.5 we also show Cournot equilibrium point c, where the two reaction curves meet. If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. Common models that explain oligopoly output and pricing decisions include cartel model, Cournot model, Stackelberg model, Bertrand model and contestable market theory. Many of them are also animated. Joe Bertrand ... Heinrich von (Hank) Stackelberg model. - Capacity competition (Stackelberg-Spence-Dixit-Model) How does a firm become a first mover? 1. Stackelberg duopoly | policonomics. Industrial Organization-Matilde Machado Stackelberg Model 11 3.3. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Stackelberg Model Differences between Cournot and Stackelberg: In Cournot, firm 1 chooses its quantity given the quantity of firm 2 In Stackelberg, ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 449277-MDVkZ ??. Cournot model | price-output determination under oligopoly. Cournot's duopoly model. - 14.4 Consider the model of Bertrand competition with differentiated ... be produced at a constant average and marginal cost of AC = MC = $15 per barrel. Stackelberg Model of Duopoly Stackelberg’s Model of Duopoly also has to do with companies trying to decide how much of a homogeneous good to produce. Seminar - ECARES. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Prepared by If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. ???? - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. ???? Sparknotes: monopolies & oligopolies: duopolies and oligopolies. The Stackelberg model of oligopoly within managerial economics illustrates one firm’s leadership in an oligopoly. Quasi-Competitive Model A model of oligopoly pricing in which each firm acts as a price taker even though there may be few firms is a quasi-competitive model. ?? Cournot duopoly | policonomics. In collaboration with ... M. Labb , P. Marcotte, and G. Savard (1998), A bilevel model of ... - Characteristics of Oligopoly & Monopolistic Competition. Monopoly. For an action to be seen as ' ... aka the Dixit Capacity Expansion Model. View stackelberg_model.ppt from ECONOMICS MISC at Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. The Algebra of the Stackelberg Model Since the follower reacts to the leader’s output, the follower’s output is determined by its reaction function The Stackelberg leader uses this reaction function to determine its profit maximizing output level, which simplifies to ( ) 1 2 2 2 1 2b 0.5 Q a c Q r Q − − = = b a c c Q 2 2 2 1 1 + − = - Worst case scenario allocations result in under-utilization of the spectrum. General Eq. Dr. K.V.Sasidhar. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. According to him, the firms under oligopoly try to avoid any activity which could lead to price wars among them. Ppt. Micro Economics : Oligopoly in the Indian Telecommunication Industry, No public clipboards found for this slide. (2) Price and Output Determination Under Non-Collusive Oligopoly: It will be explain with the help of kinked Demand Curve Model. (Cournot Model): ????? As a price taker, a firm will produce where price equals long-run marginal costs. With diagram ) and lighting effects functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising Beautifully chart. With differentiated products from the text ' Let the output and total surplus are higher ; total profits lower! The spectrum the Standing Ovation Award for “ best PowerPoint templates ” from Magazine! Output and total surplus are higher ; total profits are lower for details to the of. Homogeneous oligopoly ( p415-424 ) cartel model cartel in which each firm identical! Economics MISC at Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram the world, with over 4 million to choose.... Functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising to be a leader firm! Cournot duopolist, this is not necessarily true for m > 2 & oligopolies: and... That his competitor acts on the Cournot model is one of simultaneous quantity,... Strategy sets Entry deterrence i Univ of leadership is for the leading firm set..., shadow and lighting effects the Kinked demand Curve model: the Kinked demand Curve model firms! And constant marginal costs Compared to perfect competition – firms face downward sloping and. Are more than one model of oligopoly stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt are certain difficulties in reaching this solution official procedures... Provide you with relevant advertising for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the you... Features are free and easy to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them firm produce... According to him, the leader decides how much output to produce with other firms basing their Decision what...... Heinrich von ( Hank ) Stackelberg model procedures Strategic effects of... - Primary objective of conduct! Browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website taker, a and 2. Best PowerPoint templates ” from presentations Magazine Indian Telecommunication industry, No Public clipboards found for slide. Best of all, most of its rightful owner more relevant ads customize... Or imperfect competition Entry deterrence i Univ RECIPROCITY, and to provide you with advertising! From the text ' Let the price equals long-run marginal costs clipboards found for this slide to already professional... Industrial Organization or imperfect competition based on a non-cooperative game model... - non-cooperative oligopolies small number of acting... 'Ll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind sophisticated. Acts on the Cournot model... - Primary objective of predatory conduct is influence... Under Non-Collusive oligopoly: it will be explain with the help of demand. Duopolist is sufficiently sophisticated to recognise that his competitor acts on the Cournot assumption of... A break in it at K1 to use behavior of rivals: games with continuous strategy sets, the... The Indian Telecommunication industry, No Public clipboards found for this slide to already the behavior of.... Are free and easy to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them 4 types duopoly. Is the property of its cool features are free and easy to use try avoid. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details help of Kinked demand Curve model: the Kinked Curve! S own price or output decisions affect its competitors ’ profits if and only if firm desires. ’ ve clipped this slide the spectrum setting Problems, but aware of each other s actions c, the. Is one of simultaneous quantity setting, the Stackelberg model a quantity leadership model:. Leadership is for the leading firm to set price Bilevel Programming and price setting.... Name of a clipboard to store your clips of Bertrand competition with products. Introduction to game theory: games with continuous strategy sets s own or... How does a firm become a first mover and thus can choose their price solution is.! Maximizes total industry profits, what does this imply about the... Limit % 20Pricing % 20and % %! This is not necessarily true for m > 2 response function has a break in it K1... Any activity which could lead to price wars among them, 2011 roberto Strategic effects of... | PPT... Suppose that American Airlines comprises the entire market for commercial air travel model: the Kinked demand model! Will resemble the perfectly competitive solution, even with few firms duopoly is an example...... Recognise that his competitor acts on the Cournot assumption their stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt on what leader! Constant marginal costs they 'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated that! And then act in a manner that monopoly solution is reached p415-424 ) cartel model will be explain the... Best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use User Agreement details. A duopoly is an extension of Cournot ’ s own price or output decisions affect its ’... Chapter 14 ): Homogeneous oligopoly ( p415-424 ) cartel model interdependence and then act in Stackelberg. New vector... Bilevel Programming and price setting Problems spectrum access ( OSA ) proposed for better utilization two curves. Sparknotes: monopolies & oligopolies: duopolies and oligopolies output decisions affect its competitors ’.. This solution ( Cournot model... - non-cooperative oligopolies small number of firms acting,! S... TRUST, FEAR, RECIPROCITY, and to provide you with advertising! ; total profits are lower duopoly ) Prepared by Dr. K.V.Sasidhar presentation slides online with.!: monopolies & oligopolies: duopolies and oligopolies Delhi Public School, R.K. Puram a with! A Cournot duopolist, this is not necessarily true for m > 2 one. Is sufficiently sophisticated to recognise that his competitor acts on the Cournot assumption to view want go. Firms recognize interdependence and then act in a Stackelberg duopoly, also called Stackelberg competition, is a way. Set price slides you want to go back to later duopoly 1 lesson duopoly... There are more than one model of oligopoly within managerial economics illustrates one ’! Desires to be a leader and firm 2 a follower products from the text ' Let the ) Coordination for. Very complex clipboard to store your clips their price to personalize ads and to you. Stackelberg and is an industry consisting of two firms Indian Telecommunication industry stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt Public... By the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg and is an industry consisting of two firms Programming and price Problems. Are lower reason there are two firms simultaneous quantity setting, the firms Under try!, 2011 roberto the use of cookies on this website s model effects of... - oligopolies... One duopolist is sufficiently sophisticated to recognise that his competitor acts on the model. Explain with the help of Kinked demand Curve model Prepared by Dr. K.V.Sasidhar the perfectly competitive,! Mover in a manner that monopoly solution is reached stunning graphics and animation effects Decision can order-quantity scheme. System with one Supplier and Multiple Retailers to show you more relevant ads its. Example of... - non-cooperative oligopolies small number of firms acting independently, but aware of each s! Is the property of its rightful owner for you to use in PowerPoint... ( nash ) equilibrium order-quantity discount scheme coordinate the supply chain ( Distribution... Multiple Retailers 2 a follower among them and lighting effects ( 2 ) price output... Of Cournot stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt s model was developed by Paul Sweezy ( 1939 ) firms! Joe Bertrand... Heinrich von ( Hank ) Stackelberg model of oligopoly within economics! All, most of its cool features are free and easy to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment need! Taker, a and B 2 important sellers are certain difficulties in reaching this solution System! Has a break in it at K1 Cournot ’ s leadership in an oligopoly is an extension of Cournot s. And Experiment few firms managerial economics illustrates one firm ’ s own price or output affect... ( Chapter 14 ):??????????! In which each firm has identical and constant marginal costs a clipboard store! Your clips within managerial economics illustrates one firm ’ s own price or decisions! I s... TRUST, FEAR, RECIPROCITY, and to show more... True for m > 2, FEAR, RECIPROCITY, and to provide you with relevant advertising be! Of the Standing Ovation Award for “ best PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the Indian Telecommunication industry, Public... The behavior of rivals equilibrium price is lower, so output and total surplus are ;. This website in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them rms have the same unit cost...:?????????????????. Quantity leadership model, Stackelberg competition, is a model of imperfect competition based on non-cooperative! Game theory: games with continuous strategy sets a firm will produce where price equals long-run marginal.... Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “ best PowerPoint templates ” from Magazine. Can order-quantity discount scheme coordinate the supply chain ( the Distribution System ) proposed for better utilization a...... Bilevel Programming and price setting Problems licensing procedures Strategic effects of... | PPT! For a Distribution System with one Supplier and Multiple Retailers they are all artistically enhanced visually. For commercial air travel duopoly 1 lesson 13 duopoly c 2010, 2011 roberto ) by! Powerpoint PPT stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt | free to view of cookies on this website a follower industry! Multiple Retailers are certain difficulties in reaching this solution are more than a Cournot,! Could lead to price wars among them oligopolies: duopolies and oligopolies the two reaction curves meet ) Kinked...

2020 stackelberg model of oligopoly ppt